The 4C’s from scientific point of view by Ben Zion Menashe D.G. G.C.I. & Yehuda Yacar G.G. G.I.A: A comprehensive analysis of the chemical properties of diamonds (as Carbon bonds nature and allotropic forms), the Physical properties (the 3d structure, light properties and Crystallographic spectroscopy) and diamond color enhancements: cause and effect as well as HPHT process.

Synthetic Diamonds And Identification:-, by Mrs. Sharon Ferber D.G. G.C.I: The main methods used for the synthesis of high quality diamonds, are HPHT (High Pressures and High Temperature), and CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition). Learning how to distinguish a natural diamond from a synthetic one is a necessity, as well as performing a professional gemological test.

The new GIA Diamond Cut Grading System–, by Mrs. Sharon Ferber D.G. G.C.I: has been recognized as the most reliable method for brilliant shaped diamonds grading, by enabling comprehension of the various factors that determine how the cut of that particular stone affects its appearance.

Diamond Color Treatments and Identification:-, by Mrs. Sharon Ferber D.G. G.C.I: A diamond color is one of the components that affect its value. The main color enhancement methods are Irradiation and HPHT. Recognition of color enhanced diamonds requires determination of various visual properties, as well as characterization through several spectroscopic techniques.

Gemstones in the Eyes of Gemology, by – Mr. Yehuda Yacar G.G. G.I.A & Mrs. Liraz Shay, D.G. G.C.I: The definition and identification of a gemstone (hardness, specific gravity, refractive index), a comparison between diamond, ruby, sapphire and emerald: characteristic colors, physical properties, typical inclusions.

Diamonds and Gemstones in World Religions, by Mr. Yehuda Yacar G.G G.I.A & Mrs. H.Foox: This article provides an explanation of the symbolic of diamonds and gemstones in the Jewish religion, as well as in Hinduism and Buddhism.